Tense Changes in Indirect Speech

Kalimat tidak langsung (indirect speech) bisa diawali dengan kata kerja bentuk pertama (present), yaitu dengan mengatakan: He says that ... Hal ini boleh dilakukan apabila:
  • Melaporkan sebuah percakapan yang sedang berlangsung;
  • Melaporkan kalimat-kalimat yang tertulis dalam sebuah surat;
  • Melaporkan kalimat-kalimat berbentuk instruksi atau petunjuk (manual);
  • Melaporkan kalimat yang sering sekali diucapkan oleh seseorang.
Manakala kata kerja yang dipakai sebagai pembuka kalimat berbentuk present, present perfect atau future, maka kita bisa melaporkan kalimat langsung (direct speech) tanpa merubah jenis tenses-nya.

Contoh:
Jihan (sedang berada di dapur): I'm making coffee.
Robi (keluar dari dapur dan berbicara kepada Teddy): Jihan says she is making coffee.

Tetapi biasanya Indirect Speech di dahului dengan kata kerja berbentuk lampau (past tense), sehingga kata
kerja dalam kalimat langsung (direct speech) harus di ubah juga menjadi bentuk lampau (past tense). Mari kita perhatikan contoh-contoh dibawah ini:

Direct speech Indirect speech
Simple present .
'I never drink coffee,' he said
Simple past.
He said that he never drank coffee.
Present continuous.
'I am thinking of my daughter,' she said

Past continuous.
She said (that) she was thinking of her daughter.
Present perfect.
'I have worked for 25 years,' my uncle explained
Past perfect.
My uncle explained that he had worked for 25 years.
Simple past.
'I finished my homework,' he said
Past perfect.
He said that he had finished his homework.
Future.
She said, 'I will be the tour leader.'

Conditional.
She said that she would be the tour leader.

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